Sunday, June 7, 2020

American Domestic Policy Research Paper - 2200 Words

American Domestic Policy (Research Paper Sample) Content: American Domestic PolicyName:Institution: American Domestic PolicyIllegal Immigration Illegal immigration in the United States has become one the topics of greatest concern to the American public in recent years. This has resulted into examination of the costs and benefits of illegal immigration on unskilled works as well as the ultimate impact on the U.S economy in a number of studies. The costs include the effects of the effects of illegal immigration on unskilled workers, the property damage caused by the immigrants sneaking into the United States, the expenditure on the health care for immigrants at emergency clinics and hospitals, which are legally bound not to deny care to anyone or inquire whether someone is a legal resident, expenditures on public education for the children of the immigrants who attend public schools and burglaries and other crimes committed by illegal immigrants (Levy, 2010). Americans affected by the benefits want immigrants to have a way to take a job, whereas those most affected by the costs propose that immigrants should be kept out of the country at whatever cost. The views on dealing with illegal immigration in United States range from using the military to guard the borders and the construction of a fence along the borders to amnesty for illegal aliens already in the United States. The US governments has taken several steps to curb the problem of illegal immigration including Operation Wetback as the one of the first response to what was perceived as an alarming level of illegal Mexican immigrants as well as enactment of several legislation as such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) (Boyes Melvin, 2010). The purpose of IRCA was to decrease the number of illegal immigrants by limiting their flow and the legalization the status of the illegal aliens. However, application of the domestic policy has been affected by the experience with international terrorist attacks being associated with immigratio n and illegal immigration flows into the country. This paper will explore illegal immigration as one of the most contested issues in the American politics and recommendation of ways to deal with the issue. Factors Leading To Illegal Immigration Being Viewed As a Major Problem in America The skyrocketing number of illegal immigrants in United States has triggered great concern among the American citizens over the last few years. As of 2010, about 11.2 million illegal immigrants were living in the United States and despite this being a reduction the populations in previous, the high number has raised great concerns to the Americans owing to the impact such numbers have on the state well-being (Passel Cohn, 2011). The increased number of illegal immigrants has been associated with significant negative impacts including job pressure especially in unskilled labor, increased expenditures on health care for immigrants at hospitals and emergency clinics, pressure on public amenities, inc reased expenditure in the public schools, property damage cause by the immigrants and increased insecurity in the country. The problem of illegal immigrants has been exacerbated by the increased terrorist threats which have been strongly linked with the issue of illegal immigration into United States. Although migration between Mexico and the United States goes back to the nineteenth century and has ebbed and flowed for more than a century, U.S. citizens and politicians have been entirely comfortable with immigrants in general or Mexicans in particular. There are and always have been people who view illegal immigrants as a thread to the United States, who blame them directly for economic ills as well as presenting a danger to American modern society. Large companies might benefit from cheap, immigrant labor, because of the low wages paid to the immigrants. However, the low wages contribute to driving the general wages offered to the Americans. The issues of job loss associated with immigrants particularly for unskilled labor has contributed immensely to the heated debate against immigrants among the Americans. The competition with illegal immigrants who are ready to work for less money makes Americans unable to compete effectively for the available job opportunities in the American job market. The public has become more united against the issue of illegal immigrants with majority favoring increasing penalties on employers who hire illegal immigrants as well as increasing number of border patrol agents. According to Polyanichko (2010), about two-thirds of Americans support the idea of denying social services to the unauthorized and propose that illegal immigrants should not be eligible for social services provided by the state and local governments. One of the main arguments leveled against illegal immigrants is that they receive government benefits and dont pay taxes with education and unpaid healthcare being among the highest costs attributed to problem of illegal immigrants. As result of the increased illegal immigration, the amount of uncompensated care has continued to grow as more and more unauthorized immigrants seek for health services. In addition, increased crime has been associated with increase in the number of illegal immigrants, a factor that undermines the security of Americans as well as costing the government huge budgetary costs at both federal and local government levels in attempts to curb insecurity in the country. The burden of illegal immigrants has become worse with the laws that require children born in America be recognized as American citizens thus increasing the burden as the government is obliged to cater for such children.Some of the Attempts Made To Arrest the Increase in Illegal Immigrants and Their Failures In a move to control illegal immigrants in United States, the government introduced employer sanctions prohibiting employers from hiring illegal immigrants. Through this strategy, employers have been expected to verify employees before hiring them to ensure that illegal immigrants do not gain access to employment. However, employer sanction strategy has turnout to be ineffective due to lack of reliable mechanisms for verifying employment eligibility, lack of political will due to some of the benefits accrued from illegal immigrants such as labor, and lack of enough funding towards interior immigration enforcement (Boyes Melvin, 2010). The governments has also enacted various reforms in its domestic policy on illegal immigration including the Immigration and Control Act (IRCA) whose main purpose was ostensibly to attack the problem of illegal immigration and reign control over the borders. Among the solutions offered through this reform included a generous amnesty to illegal aliens and creation of a Special Agricultural Workers program (Polyanichko, 2010). However, these strategies emerged to be a flop by further contributing to the influx of immigrant workers into the U.S. la bor market. In this case, IRCA was seen as an attempt to reconcile the rising political clamor for border control with continuing demand for cheap immigrant labor rather controlling the increasing of illegal immigrants in the country. Some of these immigration measures have resulted into increased gap between the goals and outcomes of U.S. immigration policy. According to Cornelius, Martin and Hollifield (1994), the greatest challenge in the U.S. immigration policy has been the failure to recognize the key problem facing its implementation as the lack of recognition of illegal immigrants as the main problem. Another failure in attempts to control illegal immigration emerges from the lack of consensus on policy options, which consequently results into general lack of concern or benign neglect. United States still perceives itself as a nation of immigrants, a tradition that obstructs efforts to restrict or control any type of immigration. Another key factor undermining efforts by the U.S. government to control illegal immigration revolves around the lack of understanding of the root cause of illegal immigration. Some the root causes of the increased illegal immigration include, poor verification mechanisms applied by employers, inadequate channels to ensure legal economic immigration, changes in the global economy particularly globalization and finally inefficiency in the border patrols. The government has in the past introduced border patrols to ensure that all people entering and leaving the American territory are well vetted through presentation of proper document as provided by the U.S. laws. However, limited political will in supporting implementation of such policies thereby rendering such strategies ineffective. The government has failed to provide adequate resources to ensure effective and efficient verification at the borders of the country as well as in job places and other areas such as health care institutions (Fix, 2004). Some of the factors exasp erating the illegal migration that must be put into consideration in any attempt to curb the problem include demand-pull factors, migration networks, and supply-push pressures. The strength of these forces lying behind illegal immigration, coupled with the political, legal, and institutional constraints facing the domestic policy on immigration, have all contributed to what most observers view to sanctions modest and declining impact on immigrant flow to date. Controlling illegal immigration to the United States emerges to be more difficult logistically than controlling illegal entry to Europe, owing to the access afforded by the countrys lengthy land borders. Efforts to control illegal immigration in U.S. are further undermined by the nations long dependence on illegal foreign labor, its comparatively short history of immigration controls, and the social commitment to civil liberties and anti-discrimination norm... American Domestic Policy Research Paper - 2200 Words American Domestic Policy (Research Paper Sample) Content: American Domestic PolicyName:Institution: American Domestic PolicyIllegal Immigration Illegal immigration in the United States has become one the topics of greatest concern to the American public in recent years. This has resulted into examination of the costs and benefits of illegal immigration on unskilled works as well as the ultimate impact on the U.S economy in a number of studies. The costs include the effects of the effects of illegal immigration on unskilled workers, the property damage caused by the immigrants sneaking into the United States, the expenditure on the health care for immigrants at emergency clinics and hospitals, which are legally bound not to deny care to anyone or inquire whether someone is a legal resident, expenditures on public education for the children of the immigrants who attend public schools and burglaries and other crimes committed by illegal immigrants (Levy, 2010). Americans affected by the benefits want immigrants to have a way to take a job, whereas those most affected by the costs propose that immigrants should be kept out of the country at whatever cost. The views on dealing with illegal immigration in United States range from using the military to guard the borders and the construction of a fence along the borders to amnesty for illegal aliens already in the United States. The US governments has taken several steps to curb the problem of illegal immigration including Operation Wetback as the one of the first response to what was perceived as an alarming level of illegal Mexican immigrants as well as enactment of several legislation as such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) (Boyes Melvin, 2010). The purpose of IRCA was to decrease the number of illegal immigrants by limiting their flow and the legalization the status of the illegal aliens. However, application of the domestic policy has been affected by the experience with international terrorist attacks being associated with immigratio n and illegal immigration flows into the country. This paper will explore illegal immigration as one of the most contested issues in the American politics and recommendation of ways to deal with the issue. Factors Leading To Illegal Immigration Being Viewed As a Major Problem in America The skyrocketing number of illegal immigrants in United States has triggered great concern among the American citizens over the last few years. As of 2010, about 11.2 million illegal immigrants were living in the United States and despite this being a reduction the populations in previous, the high number has raised great concerns to the Americans owing to the impact such numbers have on the state well-being (Passel Cohn, 2011). The increased number of illegal immigrants has been associated with significant negative impacts including job pressure especially in unskilled labor, increased expenditures on health care for immigrants at hospitals and emergency clinics, pressure on public amenities, inc reased expenditure in the public schools, property damage cause by the immigrants and increased insecurity in the country. The problem of illegal immigrants has been exacerbated by the increased terrorist threats which have been strongly linked with the issue of illegal immigration into United States. Although migration between Mexico and the United States goes back to the nineteenth century and has ebbed and flowed for more than a century, U.S. citizens and politicians have been entirely comfortable with immigrants in general or Mexicans in particular. There are and always have been people who view illegal immigrants as a thread to the United States, who blame them directly for economic ills as well as presenting a danger to American modern society. Large companies might benefit from cheap, immigrant labor, because of the low wages paid to the immigrants. However, the low wages contribute to driving the general wages offered to the Americans. The issues of job loss associated with immigrants particularly for unskilled labor has contributed immensely to the heated debate against immigrants among the Americans. The competition with illegal immigrants who are ready to work for less money makes Americans unable to compete effectively for the available job opportunities in the American job market. The public has become more united against the issue of illegal immigrants with majority favoring increasing penalties on employers who hire illegal immigrants as well as increasing number of border patrol agents. According to Polyanichko (2010), about two-thirds of Americans support the idea of denying social services to the unauthorized and propose that illegal immigrants should not be eligible for social services provided by the state and local governments. One of the main arguments leveled against illegal immigrants is that they receive government benefits and dont pay taxes with education and unpaid healthcare being among the highest costs attributed to problem of illegal immigrants. As result of the increased illegal immigration, the amount of uncompensated care has continued to grow as more and more unauthorized immigrants seek for health services. In addition, increased crime has been associated with increase in the number of illegal immigrants, a factor that undermines the security of Americans as well as costing the government huge budgetary costs at both federal and local government levels in attempts to curb insecurity in the country. The burden of illegal immigrants has become worse with the laws that require children born in America be recognized as American citizens thus increasing the burden as the government is obliged to cater for such children.Some of the Attempts Made To Arrest the Increase in Illegal Immigrants and Their Failures In a move to control illegal immigrants in United States, the government introduced employer sanctions prohibiting employers from hiring illegal immigrants. Through this strategy, employers have been expected to verify employees before hiring them to ensure that illegal immigrants do not gain access to employment. However, employer sanction strategy has turnout to be ineffective due to lack of reliable mechanisms for verifying employment eligibility, lack of political will due to some of the benefits accrued from illegal immigrants such as labor, and lack of enough funding towards interior immigration enforcement (Boyes Melvin, 2010). The governments has also enacted various reforms in its domestic policy on illegal immigration including the Immigration and Control Act (IRCA) whose main purpose was ostensibly to attack the problem of illegal immigration and reign control over the borders. Among the solutions offered through this reform included a generous amnesty to illegal aliens and creation of a Special Agricultural Workers program (Polyanichko, 2010). However, these strategies emerged to be a flop by further contributing to the influx of immigrant workers into the U.S. la bor market. In this case, IRCA was seen as an attempt to reconcile the rising political clamor for border control with continuing demand for cheap immigrant labor rather controlling the increasing of illegal immigrants in the country. Some of these immigration measures have resulted into increased gap between the goals and outcomes of U.S. immigration policy. According to Cornelius, Martin and Hollifield (1994), the greatest challenge in the U.S. immigration policy has been the failure to recognize the key problem facing its implementation as the lack of recognition of illegal immigrants as the main problem. Another failure in attempts to control illegal immigration emerges from the lack of consensus on policy options, which consequently results into general lack of concern or benign neglect. United States still perceives itself as a nation of immigrants, a tradition that obstructs efforts to restrict or control any type of immigration. Another key factor undermining efforts by the U.S. government to control illegal immigration revolves around the lack of understanding of the root cause of illegal immigration. Some the root causes of the increased illegal immigration include, poor verification mechanisms applied by employers, inadequate channels to ensure legal economic immigration, changes in the global economy particularly globalization and finally inefficiency in the border patrols. The government has in the past introduced border patrols to ensure that all people entering and leaving the American territory are well vetted through presentation of proper document as provided by the U.S. laws. However, limited political will in supporting implementation of such policies thereby rendering such strategies ineffective. The government has failed to provide adequate resources to ensure effective and efficient verification at the borders of the country as well as in job places and other areas such as health care institutions (Fix, 2004). Some of the factors exasp erating the illegal migration that must be put into consideration in any attempt to curb the problem include demand-pull factors, migration networks, and supply-push pressures. The strength of these forces lying behind illegal immigration, coupled with the political, legal, and institutional constraints facing the domestic policy on immigration, have all contributed to what most observers view to sanctions modest and declining impact on immigrant flow to date. Controlling illegal immigration to the United States emerges to be more difficult logistically than controlling illegal entry to Europe, owing to the access afforded by the countrys lengthy land borders. Efforts to control illegal immigration in U.S. are further undermined by the nations long dependence on illegal foreign labor, its comparatively short history of immigration controls, and the social commitment to civil liberties and anti-discrimination norm...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Ratio And Performance Analysis Of Kamdar Group Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1932 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? Kamdar Sdn Bhd was established in Malaysia since 1972, and has since achieved a dominant position in the garment and textile departmental store industry. The Kamdar brand stands for quality of service, history and value for money. Kamdar stores specialize in textile fabric, furnishing fabric, in-house designed garments for ladies, men and childrens clothes, Indian clothing and school uniforms. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Ratio And Performance Analysis Of Kamdar Group Finance Essay" essay for you Create order In 2004, Kamdar Group (M) Berhad was established as the holding company for the group in order to facilitate its listing on the main board of the KLSE. After more than 50 years of growth, Kamdar has 21 outlets around Malaysia and employs about 1,200 staff. Ratio Analysis What is Ratios Analysis? Ratio analysis is a tool used by individuals to compute a quantitative analysis of information in a companys financial statements and evaluate the performance of company. According to Groppelli, Angelico A., In finance, a financial ratio or accounting ratio is a ratio of two selected numerical values taken from an enterprises financial statements. There are many standard ratios used to try to evaluate the overall financial condition of a corporation or other organization. Comparison Ratio analysis is generally calculated from current year numbers and then used to compare the performance or position of a single company with other companies or with an industry. Trend analysis is compared the companys current performance with previous years or even current performance against the budget. It is use to identify the companys strength and weakness with financial situation. Besides that, it acts as a guide for manager to improving with proper action. Industry comparison is compared the companys performance with the competitors companies which is similar nature companies or with the industry average. It is helps to point out deviation from norms in industry. The users of ratios analysis are group of people which related with company such as investors, employees, lender, suppliers, customers, government and public. Financial ratios can be divided into 5 categories: Profitability Ratios Measure the overall effectiveness of the company. It can help an organization manage the funds such as increase the return with control the expenses. Liquidity Ratios Measure how quickly an organization can obtain the cash to meet its short-term requirements. Which means ability of an organization generates revenues to cover the obligations. Capital Structure Ratios Analyses how assets financed. Means assess the firms long-run ability to meet its obligation. Asset Management Ratios Measure efficiently and intensively a firm uses its assets to generate sales. Market Value Ratios Measure the market value for companys stock compared with accounting values. But it can only calculate for shares that are traded in the market. Ratio Analysis for the Kamdar Group (M) Berhad: Formula: 2008 2007 Profitability Ratios :- Gross Profit Margin = Gross Profit ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Sales = 68,343,838 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 182,416,634 = 37.47% = 62,576,977 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 177,442,850 = 35.27% Operating Profit Margin = Earnings Before Interest Tax ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Sales = 19,683,440 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 182,416,634 = 10.79% = 18,544,992 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 177,442,850 = 10.45% Net Profit Margin = Net Earnings Available to Common Stockholders ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Sales = 8,481,844 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 182,416,634 = 4.65% = 7,918,897 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 177,442,850 = 4.46% Return on Assets (ROA) = Net Earnings Available to Common Stockholders ÃÆ'Æ’-1 00% Total Assets = 8,481,844 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 295,336,768 = 2.87% = 7,918,897 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 289,549,467 = 2.73% Return on Equity (ROE) = Net Earnings Available to Common Stockholders ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Common Stockholders Equity = 8,481,844 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 151,992,341 = 5.58% = 7,918,897 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 143,510,497 = 5.52% Return on Capital Employed = Operating Profit ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Capital Employed (*Capital Employed = Total Assets Current Liabilities) = 19,683,440 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 174,741,198 = 11.26% = 18,544,992 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 229,418,962 = 8.08% Liquidity Ratios :- Current Ratio = Current Assets Current Liabilities = 127,341,176 120,595,570 = 1.06 times = 123,842,363 60,130,505 = 2.06 times Quick Ratio = Current Assets less Inventory Current Liabilities = 28,978,154 120,595,570 = 0.24 times = 35,171,965 60,130,505 = 0.58 times Capital Structure Ratio s :- Total Debt to Total Asset Ratio = Total Long-Term Debt + Current Liabilities ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Total Asset = 143,344,427 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 295,336,768 = 48.54% = 146,038,970 ÃÆ'Æ’-100% 289,549,467 = 50.44% Long Term Debt to Equity Ratio = Long-Term Debt ÃÆ'Æ’-100% Total Shareholders Equity = 22,748,857 x 100% 151,992,341 = 14.97% = 85,908,465 x 100% 143,510,497 = 59.86% Times Interest Earned = Earnings Before Interest Tax Interest Expense = 19,683,440 4,630,469 = 4.25 times = 18,544,992 5,192,861 = 3.57times Asset Management Ratios :- Average Collection Period = Account Receivable ÃÆ'Æ’- 365 days Credit Sales = 7,218,271 ÃÆ'Æ’- 365days 182,416,634 = 14.44 days = 8,347,582 ÃÆ'Æ’- 365days 177,442,850 = 17.17 days Inventory Turnover = Inventory ÃÆ'Æ’- 365 days Cost of Sales = 98,363,022 ÃÆ'Æ’- 365days 114,072,796 = 314.73 days = 88,670,398 ÃÆ'Æ’- 365days 114,865,873 = 281.76 days Average Payment Period = Creditor ÃÆ'Æ’- 365 days Purchases (*Purchases = Cost of goods sold) = 5,124,727 ÃÆ'Æ’-365days 114,072,796 = 16.40 days = 7,547,495 ÃÆ'Æ’-365days 114,865,873 = 23.98 days Total Asset Turnover = Sales Total Assets (*Total Assets = Capital Employed) = 182,416,634 295,336,768 = 0.62 times = 177,442,850 289,549,467 = 0.61 times Market Value Ratios :- Earnings per Share (EPS) = Earnings Available to Shareholders Number of Ordinary Shares (*units) (*given by notes 25.b) = 8,771,828 198,049,026 = 4.4 sen / share = 8,348,542 197,990,002 = 4.2 sen / share Dividend per Share = Dividend Paid Number of Ordinary Shares (*units) (*given by notes 26) = nil (*did not declare dividend) = 4 sen Dividend Cover = Earnings per Share (EPS) Dividend per Share = nil (*did not decla re dividend) = 4.2 sen 4.0 sen = 1.05 times Price Earning (P/E) Ratio = Market Price per Share Earnings per Share (EPS) = RM 0.200 RM 0.044 = 4.55 times (*Market Price as at 31/12/08) = RM 0.530 RM 0.042 = 12.62 times (*Market Price as at 2/1/08) Dividend Yield (% return of invest) = Dividend per share ÃÆ'Æ’- 100% Market Price / Share = nil (*did not declare dividend) = RM 0.040 ÃÆ'Æ’- 100% RM 0.530 = 7.55% Performance Evaluation Profitability Ratios In order to analyze the profitability of the Kamdar Group (M) Berhad, we will look into several profitability ratios. The gross profit margin at year 2008 is at 37.47% higher compare to year 2007 is at 35.27%. This could be either at year 2008 has selling the product at a higher price or the purchasing cost at year 2008 is lower than year 2007. The operating profit margin for year 2008 is at 10.79% however for year 2007 is at 10.45%. This is indicated that the company has control the expenses at reasonable level, selling has increase with higher rate than expenses. Return on total assets ratio (ROA) for year 2007 is 2.73% increasing to 2.87% at year 2008. It is represents management has use assets efficiently and effectively ways to generate their profit and sales compare with year 2007. Return on equity (ROE) for year 2007 is 5.58% increasing to 5.52% at year 2008. It is represents the company has use the investors money to generate profit with more efficie ncy. Liquidity Ratios The current ratio and the quick ratio help to access the liquidity position of the company. The current ratio at year 2008 is lower at 1.06 times compare to year 2007 at 2.06 times. The quick ratio for year 2008 is 0.24 times comparing to year 2007 at 0.58 times. Both this ratios indicate that year 2007 has a better liquidity position compare to year 2008, because at year 2008 the increasing in current assets is less than increasing in current liabilities Thus, ability to handle their short-term obligation of year 2008 are poor than year 2007. Capital Structure Ratios The total debts to total assets ratio is lower for year 2008 at 48.54% compare to year 2007 which is at 50.44%.The long-term debts to equity ratio is 14.97% comparing to year 2007 at 59.86%. This indicate that year 2007 is more highly geared which means that quite a high proportion of a financing come from debts. In other words, Kamdar Group has improving the financing at year 2008. Th e time interest earns is higher for year 2008 at 4.25 times compare to year 2007 which is at 3.57 times. This indicates that there are more earnings available to meet interest payment and business is more stable to reduce the interest rate. Asset Management Ratios The average collection period for year 2008 is 14.44 days compare to year 2007 which is at 17.17 days. The ratios indicate that the year 2008 has strong credit management compare to year 2007. The stock turnover period for year 2008 is 314.73 days for year 2007 is 281.76 days. We can assume the Kamdar Group has estimated that the sales volume will increase at following year. The creditor payment period is shorter for year 2008 at 16.40 days compare to year 2007 which is at 23.98 days. This ratio indicates that company has sufficient cash to settling debts in time. At year 2008, company generates a higher sale at 0.62 times for every Ringgit invested in assets however at year 2007 only generate 0.61 times. Company has improving the efficiency to uses of its assets to generate revenue. Market Value Ratios The earnings per share of year 2008 is at 4.4 sen compare to year 2007 which is at 4.2 sen. Year 2008 earns a higher return per share. When we look at dividend per share, at year 2007 paid out RM0.04 for every share but at year 2008 company did not declare any dividend for every share. The dividend shown the dividend cover at year 2007 is 1.05 times but year 2008 never have dividend cover because company did not declare dividend. Therefore, the P/E ratio for year 2007 is 12.62 times but year 2008 is only at 4.55 times. Limitation of Ratio Different Accounting Policies Since the ratios are based on the figures taken from the financial statements, the results of the ratio analysis are dependent on the quality of the underlying statements. The choices of accounting policies may distort intercompany comparisons. For example, different company may use different depreciation method such strait-line method or reducing balance method, it may affected the figure in financial statement. Creative accounting The financial statement is very easy to manipulating. Company may manipulate the financial statement and trying to show the better financial performance or position which can be misleading to the users of financial accounting. Interpretation of the ratios Ratios need to be interpreted carefully and take time to understand it. It is difficult to generalize about a performance condition of particular ratio. It should not be considered in isolation. It is meaningless without making comparison with others. Rat ios are not definitive measures Ratios can provide clues to the companys performance or financial situation. Ratios cannot show whether performance is good or bad. It is just only guides for the users to estimate condition of company in future date. Historical or outdated information in financial statement The figures in a set of accounts are likely to be out of date, and so might not give a proper indication of the companys current financial position. It was represented in the conditions that ignore the economics issue. Different financial and business risk profile No two companies are the same, even when they are competitors in the same industry or market. Using ratios to compare one company with another could provide misleading information. Businesses may be within the same industry but having different financial and business risk. One company may be able to obtain bank loans at reduced rates and may show high gearing levels while as another may not be successful i n obtaining cheap rates and it may show that it is operating at low gearing level. To uninformed analyst he may feel like company two is better when in fact its low gearing level is because it cannot be able to secure further funding. Different capital structures and size Different size of companies may have different capital structures. Make comparison of performance when one is all equity financed and another is a geared company it may not be a good analysis. Conclusion Ratio analysis is useful, but analysts should be aware of these problems and make adjustments as necessary. Kamdar Groups ratio analysis shown it is growth in stable and health condition. The revenue earned by group has increased over the year. Companys total short-term debt has increasing because the company was converted part of long-term borrowing to short-term borrowing in order to reduce the total long-term debt. It can be help to survive in long run business especially economic slowdown period, but company will facing high gearing level in following year. It may affect investors to continue investing in the company. Based on the P/E ratio, the current investors will start to lose their confidence in the share of the company and choose to reduce the amount of investment in the company. Due to the continuously decreasing in the P/E ratio, it will be difficult to attract the new investors and it may cause the share price to be decreased. A slowdown in the stock exchange will affect the overall sales of the company. Therefore, the profit that earned by the company will be reducing. As a result, the dividends that paid to the stockholders will decrease. This will cause the current investors does not have confidence in the stocks and also make the stocks to be unattractive to the new investors.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Criminal Law and Procedure Week 5 Homework - 1693 Words

Week 5 Homework Jonah Colombo Devry University Author Note This paper is being submitted August 11, 2013 for Professor Sheryl Prichard’s Criminal Law and Procedure course at Devry University by Jonah Colombo. Week 5 Homework 1. Page 355 in the text: Questions for Thought and Discussion: Questions 5, 9, and 11 Question 5: Based on the ruling of the Supreme Court in City of Chicago v. Morales, what protections of the individual do you think must be included in an ordinance proscribing loitering? An individual’s protection against illegal search and seizure must be preserved. Just because a group of young people are loitering (gathering with no specific purpose) does not mean they have given up their protection from being†¦show more content†¦when he/she is responding to a call with lights on or just being on duty. This would render the law constitutionally vague and hence void it until subsequent versions elaborated on the who, what and where of what was restricted. Question 7: Despite the wording of most statutes proscribing the offense of escape, courts increasingly require the prosecution to prove the defendant’s specific intent to avoid lawful confinement. Are courts justified in imposing such a requirement on the statutory law? Yes. Statutory laws (written law) are subservient to federal law but the burden of proof is placed on the prosecution. Proving a person willfully attempted to evade lawful confinement would have to be proven if the charge was filed against the defendant. 3. Page 380 in the text: Problems for Discussion and Solution: Question 4 Question 4: The state charges Larcen Inmatio with escape from prison. The court appoints a public defender to represent him. You are assigned to investigate the case and report your findings to the public defender. Your investigation reveals that Inmatio was convicted of burglary of a dwelling and was serving the second year of a five-year sentence in the state prison. He complained to the warden that another inmate had sexually molested him and requested transfer to another prison or at least another cell block. After confirming that an inmate in Inmatio’s cell block had molested him on oneShow MoreRelatedsyllabus fin6306 Quantitative methods in finance UT Dallas1311 Words   |  6 Pages978-1861523679 (2) *Excel Modeling in Corporate Finance (EMCF) , Fourth Edition, by Craig W. Holden , ISBN-10: 0-13-249784-0 or ISBN-13: 978-0-13-249784-8 (3) *Excel Modeling in Investments (EMI), Fourth Edition, by Craig W. Holden , ISBN-10: 0-13-249787-5 or ISBN-13: 978-0-13-249787-9 * Course Delivery Methods Computers/ Software Cell Phones Those two textbooks are recommended to learn excel models in finance This course combines interactive lectures and computer lab sessions. 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In most states, juvenile justice law is applicable to those under 18 years old. Juvenile law is mainly governed by the juvenile justice codes of states. The main goal of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation rather than punishment. Juvenile justiceRead MoreThe Effectiveness Of Special Programs Specially Designed Move College Students Out Of Academic Probation1927 Words   |  8 Pagesdemands, the way they approach academic tasks and view themselves can play a significant role in their academic success (Hsieh, Sullivan, and Guerra, 2008) (pp .468). While it is generally agreed that all persons deserve equal treatment under the law, in reality some people, or groups of people, may be more vulnerable than others in our educational institutions or communities, eg. crime victims, the young, the sick, ethnic or racial minorities, social outcasts. It is very important for the peopleRead MoreEntitlement And Provision For Early Years Education4717 Words   |  19 Pageschildcare, play and education activities. Since 2004 all children in the UK aged 3 and 4 years old have been entitled to free places at nurseries and pre-school and even under the care of a childminder for up to 12.5 hours per week, this provision was increased to 15 hours per week from 2010.Day nurseries also offer the same provisions for early years education, but are usually run within a business, or by a voluntary group. Free entitlement and provision provides universal access for all to early years

Nursing Medical Practitioners

Question: Discuss about theNursingfor Medical Practitioners. Answer: Introduction This work attempt to take a prognosis of health operation in hospitals within Australia. This also establishes some of the dual dilemma that the medical practitioners undergo in the course of their operations and at times arriving at wrong decision which dearly cause the lives of the patient and as such overburdening the family members. Dr. Peter Saul asserts that ineffective treatment at times occurs and this raises a lot of eyebrows on the part of the medic who has administered it. Moreover, this work examines some of the palliative care and treatment that have been disastrous to the patient and some form of legality measures that have been employed by the family of the affected. Miriam Dayhew confirms how Peter underwent some drug therapy which later on did not materialize as it led to the loss of the live of Peter. According to Miriam, Peter went through series of radiotherapy and thereafter surgery which came later on to be viewed as lethargic since he died four months upon havi ng undergone surgery. Dr. Peter Saul the Intensivist Care doctor alludes that it is the solely responsibility of the doctor to see to it that they help the patient in their potion to fully recuperate by having closer examination of the patient. The aforesaid doctor confirms that most of the patient die on daily basis on the hands of the doctor due to some form of negligence that is usually eminent in that case. Nonetheless, it is explicitly evident from the interview carried out by Annie Guest that most of the patients do push for immediate medical intervention and thereby making the medical to arrive at informed decision due to the high level of expedition of the matter. According to the Jordans that is Jenny Jordan, their son succumbed to death after having undergone surgery which was carried out by Dr. Charlie. Previous report indicated that they were to delay the surgery of their son to a later stage when their son would have been mature enough to undergo it. However, upon consulting Dr. Charlie, he a greed to conduct the surgery which later on stole from the Jordans their loved one. It was evident later on that their son had some level of bleeding on his brain which culminated to his fatal death. Dr. Saul attest that at times doctors do go a notch higher to over treat patient which later on their effort prove to be futile as they find that they have caused, more harm than good to the patient. It is incumbent to state that the doctor may be sued for this matter. Therefore, it is for this reason that this work shall draw one to the legal framework that have been instituted to see to it that the life of the patient is at right hands and probable legal measures that ought to be undertaken if it found out that the doctor was culpable of causing the patients death. It is for this reason that some of the framework are put in place to govern this profession so as to ensure that the patients are nursed by the professional people who have met the set standards postulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. This piece of work will critically evaluate the ethical nursing decision and the role it has played in this industry. Different ethical principle and guidelines are expl icitly reviewed in the bid to determine the worth of operations on midwifery and nursing as a profession. Loftin, Campanella and Gilbert (2011) assert that legal and ethical principle are very important in this noble profession of nursing. It is incumbent to define ethical code as the systematic approach or rather guideline that is primarily aimed at ensuring that the policies and regulations of this profession are adhered to the latter. Therefore, for the functionality and smoot working relation in the nursing profession, this personality is obliged to possess this notable ethical code of conduct so as to realize the core goals and objectives of the business. However, it is ideal to state that at times the nurse is mostly met with ethical dilemma where the choice and decision of the nurse is very important at this juncture since any form of decision matters a lot and may have great impact to its patient (Gonyea, Wright Earl-Kulkosky, 2014). It is for this and many other reasons that there are 6 basic principles that have been developed to fully actualize the professionalism in nursing. This six principles of ethics that centers on nursing are justice which implies being affair and able to dispense services without discrimination whatsoever. The second one is to be respectful to the patient or client. This means that the nurse should be self-determined to provide their services well in the view of maintaining autonomy in this sector. Thirdly, the nurse ought to be veracious in their work. This will make it easy for the patients to confide their problems to them and thereby improving the good cordial relationship between the nurse and patients. The fourth ethical observance is fidelity (Essex, 2016). Every nurse is obliged to be very committed in their profession. This implies that they are supposed to be faithful and able to treat their patient with n high level of professionalism. Additionally, the nurse should avoid any attempt that is primarily geared towards harming the life of their patients. Lastly, the nurse is expected to be beneficence (Davidson, Elliott Daly, 2006). This, means that they should always be ready to do good. In Australia there is Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia that majorly ensures that the public receive quality delivery of services from qualified staffs. Therefore, the aforesaid board has put clearly that the nursed and midwives need to register so that they get the full approval of the board to dispense their services within the confines of Australia. Feasibly, it is common knowledge that the public safety ought to be at the center stage of everything and it is for this reason that the government in conjunction with other agents or organization ensures that nurses and midwives are registered before they start rendering their services to the nation (Halcomb, Patterson Davidson, 2006). There are some framework and legislation, policies that have been instituted by the National Board to ensure that everyone working within this body has met the given threshold so as to avoid a situation of getting quacks in this profession that is very crucial to most of the citizens. Hegney, (1996) states that the enrolled nurse is affiliated to registered nurse whose primary role is to evaluate the successes achieved in the field of nursing. The said entity squarely. Oversee the way the nurses render their services to the patient. Notably, enrolled nurse work within the confines of registered nurses since that it is the body that is entitled with the mandate to discharge their duty on the efficacy of quality services rendered to the patients and how competent this staff are to perform their noble duty. In 2012, most nurses in Australia were instructed to register online so as to determine their eligibility in that field. Till now, AHPRA has approved the registration of nurses and midwives to a tune of 90% on the said platform which has made everything to be digitalized and able to access the details of every nurse in a very simple and organized way (Jones Cheek, 2003). The board has further made it possible for any woman to deliver from their places of choice o r rather preference. It important to state that homebirths are still encouraged in Australia it is for this reason that the midwives are not only limited to dispense their services in hospital only but even at home where the mother finds it ideal for her. The success of nursing and midwifery in Australia is solely pegged on the support they receive from the government in different level. All the levels of government that is national, state and local work hand in hand to see to it that its citizens get high quality delivery Medicare from their health centers. Ethical consideration is very fundamental issue in the nursing and midwifery as it determines how the said personalities may be able to dispense their services to their clients with high level of veracity (Smith, 2002). According to Happell, McAllister and Gaskin (2014) there are innumerable regulatory changes that is evident in nursing field. This is feasible in the manner in which the other sectors have been well intertwined to the system to see its efficacy and heighten the whole dispensation of services. In evaluating this changes, it would be prudent for one to critically examine the role of the Australian government in nursing and midwifery sector. Moreover, evaluate some of the progress they have made in support of the board that have been established for that primary purpose. Therefore, the Australian Government has the sole responsibility of ensuring the following provisions are undertaken in the health facilities (Kitney, Tam, Bennett, Buttigieg, Bramley Wang, 2016). An affiliate of Medicare known as Medicare Benefits Schedule offer requisite medical services to the residents of Australia. There is National Healthcare Agreement that aids the state in ensuring that there is equity in provi sion of this services to all and sundry. To add on that, it has been observed that even the private sectors ought to meet some certain threshold for it to operate under the confines of the laws of the country. It has been seen that most of this private health sectors subsidize their fees in order for their charges to be favorable for all the resident in the nation. This in turn encourages the citizens to seek medical attention from different sector knowing that the charges have been regulated and therefore affordable (Cleary, Jackson Hungerford, 2014). Grants and payments from non-governmental agencies have really played a significant role in the health sector and as such greatly boosted nursing and midwifery in its totality. There is also Medicare benefits scheme that is offered to the patients in order to make them afford the paying the charges that they incur in medical facilities. The discretion to go by the schedule squarely lies on their hands. The MBS offers an array of advantage to the citizens and thereby realizing great impact to their lives. The amount of money or fees that is paid in excess by the schedule may be reclaimed back under the same framework as there is provisions primarily meant to recover the excess that are payable (Grant, 2013). This may be actualized through the health insurance strategies and logistical plan for that. The board has a number of standards which keeps on reviewing it periodically so as to be in alignment with the global changes in health sectors and necessitation on dynamism which is indispensable in nature (Russell Coventry, 2016). All these standards are basically aimed at ensuring that the citizens are not easily duped to substandard services from those personalities who are purporting to be nurses and midwifery yet they do not have the right credentials for that tasky activity. Is ideal to state that in Australia the re is Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia that majorly ensures that the public receive quality delivery of services from qualified staffs (Russell Coventry, 2016). Therefore, the aforesaid board has put clearly that the nursed and midwives need to register so that they get the full approval of the board to dispense their services within the confines of Australia. Feasibly, it is common knowledge that the public safety ought to be at the center stage of everything and it is for this reason that the government in conjunction with other agents or organization ensures that nurses and midwives are registered before they start rendering their services to the nation. The board has well established and published standard, codes of ethics guidelines and most importantly offer consultative services where necessary (Russell Coventry, 2016). Tentatively, the board has instituted website where its registered member may access the guidelines of the sector in the view of acquainting themsel ves well to be able to dispense their services within the parameters of the guidelines established in their profession. Conclusion Conclusively, the health sector has really played a significant role in transforming and shaping the nursing and midwifery institution. Some of the great achievements have been highlight. Just but to mention are the, insurance cover that does benefit a lot of residents who sought medical aid in both private and public health institutions. References Cleary, M., Jackson, D., Hungerford, C. L. (2014). Mental health nursing in Australia: resilience as a means of sustaining the specialty.Issues in mental health nursing,35(1), 33-40. Davidson, P. M., Elliott, D., Daly, J. (2006). Clinical leadership in contemporary clinical practice: implications for nursing in Australia.Journal of Nursing Management,14(3), 180-187. Essex, R. (2016). Healthcare and complicity in Australian immigration detention.Monash Bioethics Review,34,2, 136-147. Gonyea, J. L. J., Wright, D. W., Earl-Kulkosky, T. (2014). Navigating Dual Relationships in Rural Communities.Journal of Marital and Family Therapy,40,1, 125-136. Grant, J. (2013). Child and family health nursing in Australia: connecting with the past to shape our future.Australian Journal of Child and Family Health Nursing,10(2), 6. Halcomb, E. J., Patterson, E., Davidson, P. M. (2006). Evolution of practice nursing in Australia.Journal of Advanced Nursing,55(3), 376-388. Happell, B., McAllister, M., Gaskin, C. J. (2014). Opportunity lost? The major in mental health nursing in Australia.Nurse education today,34(6), e13-e17. Hegney, D. (1996). The status of rural nursing in Australia: A review.Australian Journal of Rural Health,4(1), 1-10. Jones, J., Cheek, J. (2003). The scope of nursing in Australia: a snapshot of the challenges and skills needed.Journal of Nursing Management,11(2), 121-129. Kitney, P., Tam, R., Bennett, P., Buttigieg, D., Bramley, D., Wang, W. (2016). Handover between anaesthetists and post-anaesthetic care unit nursing staff using ISBAR principles: A quality improvement study.ACORN: The Journal of Perioperative Nursing in Australia,29(1), 30. Loftin, C., Campanella, H., Gilbert, S. (2011). Ethical issues in nursing education: the dual-role researcher.Teaching and Learning in Nursing,6,3, 139-143. Russell, K., Coventry, T. (2016). Innovations in postgraduate work integrated learning within the perioperative nursing environment: A Western Australian experience.ACORN: The Journal of Perioperative Nursing in Australia,29(4), 15. Smith, C. (2002). A framework for the role of registered nurses in the specialty practice of rehabilitation nursing in Australia.Journal of Advanced Nursing,39(3), 249-257.

Monday, April 20, 2020

Old Girls Twitter Essay Example

Old Girls Twitter Paper To Tweet, or Not to Tweet My sixty-two year old father asked me about â€Å"tweeting† several weeks ago. Naturally, I thought to myself, what the hell is my father doing asking me about twitter, he doesn’t even own a computer. I assumed that he had seen a newspaper article about it or heard it on the news. I stood correct. Twitter has become new media phenomenon and let’s be honest- who doesn’t have a Twitter account these days? In defense of Twitter by Caroline McCarthy and Do I Really Have To Join Twitter? By Farhad Manjoo were two articles that struck me as captivating. Personally, I’ve never found twitter all that appealing, and yet I still have an account. However, I am happy to report I’ve only â€Å"tweeted† twice in the past year. As soon as I created my account, I immediately regretted it. I wasn’t too fond of the idea that people were going to be â€Å"following† my tweets and they would be updated with unnecessary complaints or food choices of the day. Farhad Manjoo seems to share similar thoughts on the subject. Commited Twitterers argue that the 140-character-or-less tweet represents the next great mode of human communication†¦Wait a minute-you want me to keep a perpetual log of my boring life for all of the world to see? † I agree. Twitter allows complete strangers to stalk your ideas and involve themselves in learing about your personal life. We will write a custom essay sample on Old Girls Twitter specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Old Girls Twitter specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Old Girls Twitter specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Creepy? Just a little. Manjoo argues whether or not there is a point to Twitter, needless to say, not one valid point was made. Manjoo’s article made a second compelling point. It is an alien form of communication. Micro-blogging mixes up features of e-mail, IM, blogs, and social networks to create something not just novel but also confusing, an doing it well takes some time and patience. † I’ve seen my friends on their Twitter accounts, and they will sit in front of their computer for ten minutes or so, just to write a three sentence statement about their life, trying to make themselves sound a lot more intriguing to their â€Å"followers†. In their defense, I can recognize why they wouldn’t want to sound tedious or dull, but there are certainly better things they could be doing with that ten minutes of their time. When I read over the article In Defense of Twitter I couldn’t help but laugh because although my mind generally doesn’t accept the idea of Twitter, everything in the article seemed to make valid points, while they may seem contradictive to the previous article. â€Å"The beauty of Twitter is that, unlike a full-out blog, there’s no obligation to be philosophical, thought-provoking or grammatically sound. Because it doesn’t require that kind of extra effort, it’s great for people like me who want to jump on the social-media bandwagon but don’t have the time to set up something elaborate on WordPress. I can understand this to an extent. Some people enjoy blogging in general, and since there are â€Å"apps† for Twitter, you can do it straight from your phone. For people who lead a chaotic, busy schedule filled with kids, jobs and extracurricular activities, I can see why Twitter would be an escape or even fun for that matter. McCarthy do es argue however, that people reveal sensitive information that doesn’t need to be broadcasted to the whole social networking system. Childrens’ names and exact locations for example, should not be included in the 140 character long tweet. I totally agree with her points, in my opinion personal information and personal emotions for that matter should be kept outside of the blogging world. A couple months ago, I accidentally, (I guess it was more of me being nosey than being accidental) stumbled upon a Twitter page that wasn’t private, and I didn’t happen to like the user of the page all that much for personal matters. Within two minutes of reading this nine-teen year old girls Twitter, I found out that she smoked marijuana around her seven month old baby, she needed a babysitter to go to a party that night, and she had a six pack of Twisted Tea in her trunk. I’ve never actually met this girl, unfortunately I just know of her from mutual friends. Good first impression? I don’t think so. People also forget the fact that many employers are involved in social networking sites. If you’re going to be putting inappropriate tweets, you might want to think about adjusting the privacy settings- just a thought. Facebook, MySpace, Live Journal, Skype, AIM, and Twitter included are not for everyone. â€Å"I’m of the opinion that no piece of social-media software is for everyone, and Twitter is no exception. I have friends who are so frustrated by Twitter’s lack of functionality and frequent site outrages that they’ve given up on it altogether. † Certain people aren’t comfortable with sharing there thoughts with their close friends, let alone the whole realm of Twitter. I suppose it all depends on the individual, but let’s be honest; no one needs to know that your new conditioner smells like apples. All in all, I think twitter is pointless. However, I understand why people enjoy the concept. I think an unbelievable, unnecessary portion of society is wasting their time with pointless social blogging, but who am I to say it’s right or wrong. I enjoyed the two articles’ distinction, and reading other peoples opinions and reasoning’s is a good way to acquire a better understanding as to why society is so obsessed with the idea of micro-blogging. There’s tweeting now, what will come next?

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Free Essays on Understanding The Rationale Behind Machiavellis The Prince

Understanding the Rationale Behind Machiavelli’s The Prince Machiavelli’s scientific and rational perspectives are blunt and harsh. His book The Prince is a look into the world of running a state and the basis for gaining respect as a leader. He writes that a state is only created if people cooperate and work to maintain it. Putting faith and trust in the people to really work and understand that everyone has to give to receive is similar to that of a utopian society yet different. Here Machiavelli explains that a state needs to take precedence over everything. This is the same idea for a utopian society. However, in a utopian society everyone is equal and gets no more than the next person. In a Machiavellian society the state is most important and everyone must work for it’s maintenance but everyone is not equal and certain leaders and people can excel further. Maintaining sovereignty should be the focus of a leader and the people of the state. If one does not work on sustaining the sovereignty of a state it will surely fall apart and be taken over. Further the leader would appear to be weak and cause the state to quickly boot him out of his position. Machiavelli believes strongly that a state should be founded on military power. â€Å"It is of such importance that military prowess not only keeps those who have been born rulers in power but also often enables men who have been born private citizens to come to power,† (Machiavelli). By this Machiavelli points out that someone who is already in the blood line to be a ruler needs to work to keep a strong militia, and for those that want to come to rule need to remember that military ability is key. He believes that the strength in militia will show how really strong a leader is. It will allow other leaders to recognize that you hold power over your own people and can conquer anyo ne that tries to ruin your respective state. â€Å"On the other hand, one sees that wh... Free Essays on Understanding The Rationale Behind Machiavelli's The Prince Free Essays on Understanding The Rationale Behind Machiavelli's The Prince Understanding the Rationale Behind Machiavelli’s The Prince Machiavelli’s scientific and rational perspectives are blunt and harsh. His book The Prince is a look into the world of running a state and the basis for gaining respect as a leader. He writes that a state is only created if people cooperate and work to maintain it. Putting faith and trust in the people to really work and understand that everyone has to give to receive is similar to that of a utopian society yet different. Here Machiavelli explains that a state needs to take precedence over everything. This is the same idea for a utopian society. However, in a utopian society everyone is equal and gets no more than the next person. In a Machiavellian society the state is most important and everyone must work for it’s maintenance but everyone is not equal and certain leaders and people can excel further. Maintaining sovereignty should be the focus of a leader and the people of the state. If one does not work on sustaining the sovereignty of a state it will surely fall apart and be taken over. Further the leader would appear to be weak and cause the state to quickly boot him out of his position. Machiavelli believes strongly that a state should be founded on military power. â€Å"It is of such importance that military prowess not only keeps those who have been born rulers in power but also often enables men who have been born private citizens to come to power,† (Machiavelli). By this Machiavelli points out that someone who is already in the blood line to be a ruler needs to work to keep a strong militia, and for those that want to come to rule need to remember that military ability is key. He believes that the strength in militia will show how really strong a leader is. It will allow other leaders to recognize that you hold power over your own people and can conquer anyo ne that tries to ruin your respective state. â€Å"On the other hand, one sees that wh...

Friday, February 28, 2020

H.W Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 10

H.W - Essay Example 29 years after the tragic event, it is but right that a new generation of people come to learn of the facts surrounding an event that redefined the way that governments respond to chemical explosions. This paper will also look at the after effect of the explosion on the judicial system and take a look at how the victims have benefitted or not from the court decisions. It is important to understand that the Bhopal tragedy did not fall squarely on the shoulders of Union-Carbide, a mere stock holder in the Union-Carbide plant. Rather, Union-Carbide India was owned and operated by the Indian company of the same name. In a statement on their website, Union - Carbide explains that: â€Å"Union Carbide India Limited designed, built and managed the plant using Indian consultants and workers. In 1994, Union Carbide sold its entire stake in UCIL to Mcleod Russel India Limited of Calcutta, and UCIL was renamed Eveready Industries India Limited (Eveready Industries). As a result of the sale of its shares in UCIL, Union Carbide retained no interest in - or liability for - the Bhopal site. The proceeds of the UCIL sale were placed in a trust and exclusively used to fund a hospital in Bhopal, which now provides specialist care to victims of the tragedy. â€Å" After the explosion, Union Carbide hired the independent firm of Arthur D. Little, Inc. to undertake a thorough investigation as to what caused the explosion. The findings of the investigators was clear. There was sabotage involved as water backed into the tank that caused a chemical reaction, leading to the explosion. ( Bhopal Information Center, â€Å"Statement of Union Carbide Regarding The Bhopal Tragedy†). Safety precautions have since been taken on a world wide scale to prevent the occurrence of another explosion stemming from a similar cause. The Supreme Court of India saw just cause to hold Union-Carbide partly responsible